National Police Lead for Prostitution, ACC Chris Armitt, Discusses the Merseyside Model

ACC Chris Armitt, National Police Lead for Prostitution

ACC Chris Armitt, National Police Lead for Prostitution

This article was first published on The Huffington Post  – 3 March 2014

With nearly 65,000 signatures, our petition calling for Theresa May to make the Merseyside hate crime model law is gathering momentum. We’ve yet to hear from Mrs May, but as Home Secretary responsible for freeing up the police to fight crime more effectively, I hope we do. However, we did hear recently from Assistant Chief Constable Chris Armitt, the National Police Lead for Prostitution, and he met with me, Jackie Summerford, mother of Bonnie Barratt who was murdered at age 24 in the sex trade, and Alex Bryce, Manager of National Ugly Mugs, to discuss our campaign.

Based in Merseyside where he is Assistant Chief Constable for People Development, ACC Armitt sees first-hand the positive outcomes for people in the sex trade, the police and the wider community of the hate crime approach. Since 2006 when they adopted the model, reporting of crimes against sex workers has dramatically increased and their conviction rates for rapists and other violent criminals are astounding, making all of society safer. Here he explains why he advocates for the Merseyside model of policing prostitution.

What do you see as the benefits of the Merseyside hate crime model? 

It forms only a part of an overall approach that focuses on the vulnerability of those involved in the sex industry. The Merseyside model aims to build trust and confidence amongst sex workers to report when they are attacked, which allows the police to identify and arrest dangerous people who pose a threat to the whole of society. It also means that when sex workers are operating in a manner that is causing public concern then influence can be used to quickly modify behaviour and reassure communities.

Would you agree the hate crime model for policing prostitution should be made law in line with other hate crimes which are monitored by the Crown Prosecution Service and the Association of Chief Police Officers?

I think any steps that are taken that enhance the police response to attacks on vulnerable groups such as sex workers are important. By treating such attacks as a hate crime it helps to reassure the victims that the Police Service are taking their crime seriously and it ensures that the subsequent response and investigation will be as comprehensive as possible.

What are your thoughts on the hard line policing approaches to on-street prostitution some forces have adopted, such as Operation Clearlight in Redbridge, London, and the Safe Exit operation that ran in Medway, Kent?

The operational challenge facing respective forces is diverse and challenging and ultimately each force needs to decide what operational tactics it employs to deal with any issue that is of concern to the communities it protects. The national guidance we promote urges forces to work in partnership to achieve long lasting solutions to benefit communities and sex workers.

Do you know why no other police forces have taken on the 2011 Association of Chief Police Officers’ guidance recommending the adoption of the Merseyside approach?

It might be that some forces see it as a big step to take, ultimately change takes time and all we can do is to continue to promote what we believe is best practice. That is exactly what I will continue to do.


Please add your name to our petition, hopefully bringing us closer to hearing from Theresa May and making the Merseyside model the national standard policing approach for prostitution.

Policing Prostitution – The Merseyside Hate Crime Model That Prioritises Protection of Sex Workers

Lost Lives

From “Hate Crime, Harm Reduction & Social Inclusion: Addressing Violence Against Sex Workers in Merseyside” by Shelly Stoops (ISVA) Armistead Street Project, Liverpool CHT.

This article was first published on The Huffington Post – 5 February 2014

Bonnie Barratt was only 24 years old when she was murdered in 2007 in East London. The serial killer who took her life might have been stopped and Bonnie might still be alive today if her friends had been able to turn to the police. The murderer had been a regular client to the women who were in prostitution and he’d started to get rough with some of them.

But women in the sex trade don’t have the protection of the police. Often when reporting crimes against them they fear being charged with something related to prostitution, not being believed, being blamed, losing their standing in the community, losing custody of their children. There are so many barriers to reporting crimes committed against them, most do not and that is what makes them ‘easy targets’ for criminals. Women in prostitution are at the highest risk of rape and other violence and in London, their mortality rate is 12 times the national average.

I was introduced to Bonnie’s mother, Jackie Summerford, who brings up Bonnie’s son, through a friend when I began working to raise awareness of the policing model operating in Merseyside. A year before Bonnie was murdered, in 2006, Merseyside Police pledged to treat crimes against sex workers as hate crimes. Their approach to policing prostitution is very different from the rest of the UK as are their results convicting rapists and other violent offenders targeting people in the sex trade. In 2010, their conviction rate for those who raped sex workers was 67%. The national average conviction rate for rape is just 6.5%.

The police in Merseyside work closely with sex work projects that offer services such as harm reduction, counselling and outreach. A specialist trained Independent Sexual Violence Advisor (ISVA) acts as an intermediary when people in the sex trade have been the victim of crime and supports them through the process from report to court.

This joined-up approach prioritising protection over enforcement enables women in the sex trade to feel safe reporting crimes committed against them. Because trusting relationships with the police have been developed, reporting of crimes has dramatically increased. Women in prostitution in Merseyside know when they call the police they will be treated as any other victim of crime as is their right. But although this is the right of every person in prostitution throughout the UK, it is not what they receive and that has to change.

In 2011, the Association of Chief Police Officers recommended all forces adopt the Merseyside hate crime approach, but none have and none are obliged to. Because of this, I have joined with Jackie, Bonnie’s mother, and Alex Bryce, Manager of National Ugly Mugs – a scheme that increases safety for sex workers – calling for Theresa May MP to make this model of policing law throughout the UK.

Currently, approaches deployed in other parts of the country are failing these women, forcing them into more isolated and dangerous areas and alienating them further from the police and this cannot continue. Just last year when Redbridge Police took a hard line approach to women working on-street, which is known to create more danger, 24-year-old Mariana Popa was murdered. Policing policies must serve to protect people, not put them in danger.

The Merseyside hate crime model works to increase safety for sex workers and by convicting more rapists and other violent criminals, all of society is made safer. Please support our petition on to make this the standard policing approach for the UK.

Jackie Summerford and Ruth Jacobs

Rt Hon Mrs Theresa May MP: Make the Merseyside hate crime model of policing prostitution law UK wide

Jackie Summerford is the mother of Bonnie Barratt who was murdered at 24 years old in the sex trade. If the Merseyside hate crime model was in operation in London, Bonnie’s killer might have been reported to the police before and she would be alive today.

Please add your signature to the petition calling for Rt Hon Mrs Theresa May MP to make the Merseyside hate crime model law UK wide:

“Jackie Summerford talking with Ruth Jacobs for the Merseyside hate crime model campaign” Produced by Matthew Lynch (

  • Jackie Summerford’s first interview for the Merseyside model campaign can be read here.

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